.

though, although, even though, despite, in spite of






therefore
conclusion
thus
result
consequently
consequence (result)
so
consequence
then
consequence
hence
consequence
as a result


Linking words and phrases

Although some of these words work as sentence connectors, they can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph, that is linking one idea / argument to another.
Sequence
Result
Emphasis
  • First / firstly, second / secondly, third / thirdly etc
  • Next, last, finally
  • In addition, moreover
  • Further / furthermore
  • Another
  • Also
  • In conclusion
  • To summarise
  • So
  • As a result
  • As a consequence (of)
  • Therefore
  • Thus
  • Consequently
  • Hence
  • Due to
  • Undoubtedly
  • Indeed
  • Obviously
  • Generally
  • Admittedly
  • In fact
  • Particularly / in particular
  • Especially
  • Clearly
  • Importantly
Addition
Reason
Example
  • And
  • In addition / additionally / an additional
  • Furthermore
  • Also
  • Too
  • As well as
  • For
  • Because
  • Since
  • As
  • Because of
  • For example
  • For instance
  • That is (ie)
  • Such as
  • Including
  • Namely
Contrast
Comparison

  • However
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Still
  • Although / even though
  • Though
  • But
  • Yet
  • Despite / in spite of
  • In contrast (to) / in comparison
  • While
  • Whereas
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Similarly
  • Likewise
  • Also
  • Like
  • Just as
  • Just like
  • Similar to
  • Same as
  • Compare
  • compare(d) to / with
  • Not only...but also

on the other hand.jpeg


Do this activity related with the chart: Linking words - Activity

Read and do this other activity: Linking words and phrases




Linking words:
Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow your ideas.

Giving examples
For example

The most common way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance.
For instance


Namely

Namely refers to something by name. "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."


Adding information
And

Ideas are often linked by and. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and.
"We discussed training, education and the budget."
In addition


As well as

As well as can be used at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.
"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition."
"We are interested in costs as well as the competition."
Also

Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. "We also spoke about marketing."
You can use also with not only to give emphasis.
"We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."
We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this…
Too

Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well.
"They were concerned too."
"I, too, was concerned."
Furthermore


Moreover

Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point you are making.
"Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."
Apart from

Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to.
"Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
"Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
In addition to


Besides




Summarising
In short
In brief
In summary
To summarise
In a nutshell
To conclude
In conclusion
We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.


Sequencing ideas
The former, … the latter

The former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points.
"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."
Firstly, secondly, finally

Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on.
The first point is


Lastly


The following

The following is a good way of starting a list.
"The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."


Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun.
"Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%."
"Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
If you want to follow these words with a clause (a subject, verb and object), you must follow the words with the fact that.
"Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25."
"Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfill all its orders."
Owing to / owing to the fact that


Because

Because can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. For example, "Because it was raining, the match was postponed."
"We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive."
Because of

Because of is followed by a noun.
"Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."
Since

Since and as mean because.
"Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
As

"As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."



Giving a result
Therefore

Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way.
"The company are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff."
So

So is more informal.
Consequently


This means that


As a result




Contrasting ideas
But

But is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the beginning of a sentence.
"He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."
"He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."
However


Although / even though

Although, despite and in spite of introduce an idea of contrast. With these words, you must have two halves of a sentence.
"Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."
"In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."
Despite / despite the fact that

Despite and in spite of are used in the same way as due to and owing to. They must be followed by a noun. If you want to follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that.
"Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees."
In spite of / in spite of the fact that


Nevertheless

Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway.
"The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
"The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."
Nonetheless


While

While, whereas and unlike are used to show how two things are different from each other.
"While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown."
"Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down."
"Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
Whereas


Unlike


In theory… in practice…

In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result.
"In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."



Other expressions:
worthy of note
digno de mención
worthy of remark
digno de mención
worty of attention
digno de atención




María Ángeles A.

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