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4. GRAMMAR


THE PASSIVE


Remember that you started to learnt the Passive in Básico 2 and learnt most of it in Intermedio 1, you can click here: The Passive - Intermedio 1.


The thirty pounds will be refunded.
Who will give the money back? We don't know.

Is the process of getting the thirty pounds back important? Yes.


It looks as if it's all been bought.
Who has bought all the money? We don't know.

Is it important? No.




We use passives to focus attention on who or what an action affects and when it is unclear or unimportant who performs the action.
Form passives using the verb to be + the past participle:


14 Passive wiki.JPG


In the active sentence, the focus is more on the person (e.g. Peter Jackson directed The Lord of the Rings).
In the passive sentence the focus is more on the film (e.g. The Lord of the Rings was directed by Peter Jackson.).

In passive sentences, we often don't mention who performs the action - because it's understood or it's unknown / not important.
In passive sentences, to show who or what performed the action, use by.
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
My bank offered me another credit card last week! (past simple)
I was offered another credit card by my bank last week!
The news have strengthened the dollar. (present perfect simple)
The dollar has been strengthened by the news.


The passive is often used in English where other languages use an impersonal subject, e.g. It is said that they won't be invited to the wedding (Se dice que ...); It's made in (Se hace en / Hecho en) ..., They're grown in (Crecen en)..., etc..


ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
They pay my wages on the 22nd. (present simple)
My wages are usually paid into my account on the 22nd.
They are installing a new security system at the moment. (present continuous)
A new security system is being installed at the moment.
They sent out your new card to you last Monday. (past simple)
Your new card was sent out to you last Monday.
They said they were making cash withdrawals in Morocco. (past continuous)
They said cash withdrawals were being made in Morocco.
They have cleared the cheque, but they will charge you for this. (present perfect / future will)
The cheque has been cleared, but you will be charged for this.

Typical mistakes:
· using the active instead of the passive, e.g. The tickets sell at a newsagent's; The tickets are sold at a newsagent's.
· don't think you always have to use by (somebody) when you make a passive sentence.
· problems of form, e.g. leaving out the verb be or not using the participle correctly.


· Be + -ing:

We can use the be + -ing form of the passive after certain verbs and after prepositions:

PASSIVE VOICE
deny + Vb -ing
He strongly denied being involved in the scandal.


preposition + Vb -ing
I have absolutely no interest in being sold insurance!
preposition + Vb -ing
I'm scared of being ripped off!



· Intransitive verbs:

Intransitive verbs are verbs that don't have an object. They are never used in the passive form.
These include verbs as become, happen, die, lack, rise, fall, wait, arrive, cry, disappear.
Transitive verbs:

Intransitive verbs:
They are action verbs that have an object to receive that action. In "The batter hit the ball", the direct object ball received the action of the verb hit.

They are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, the do not have an object receiving the action, e.g. The bird sang. Notice there are no words after the verb sang.
I baked some cookies.

I laughed.
I rode the bicycle.

I cried.
I moved the chair.

The book fell.


The subject is performing the action of the verb and nothing is receiving the action.





Work with these examples:

14 Passive Voice - Films wiki.JPG













8. GRAMMAR


WISH

"Wish" refers to hypothetical things (things we want, but which are impossible).
As such, it is followed by past forms (past simple or past perfect).

I wish we didn't have to, but we are penniless.

What did he have to do?
Cut two bundles of wood each day.


Does he want to?
No.


Is is a current situation?
Yes.


Can he change the situation?
No.


What's the tense ofthe verb after "wish"?
Past simple. (When we use "wish" to refer to a present situation that can't be changed we use wish + past simple.)




How I wish I had never opened that bag.

Did he open the bag?
Yes.


Does he think this was a bad idea?
Yes.


When did this happen?
In the past.


What's the tense after "wish"?
Past perfect. (When we regret a past situation we use wish + past perfect.)


After the examples of the presentation, look at these forms:

WISH + PAST SIMPLE:
wish + past simple
· to talk about things in the present that you would(n't) like.
I wish I was better with money. I'm always in debt.


I sometimes wish I had a car, but I can't afford one.



wish + could
· to refer to abilities we would like.
I wish we could stop working, but we can't.


I sometimes wish we could stop working, but we can't.



wish + would
· to refer to habits or to people / things "refusing" to do something.
I wish the government would invest in schools more.


I wish he wouldn't waste his money the way he does.



wish + musn't
= > didn't have to

I wish I mustn't go, but I've got to work.
I wish I didn't have to go, but I've got to work.

If you want to talk about future possibilities, use "hope" and present tenses, not "wish". I hope interest rates go up soon. I have a lot of savings.




WISH + PAST PERFECT:
wish + past perfect (simple or continuous)
· it refers to regrets about the past and to things in the past we now want to be different.
I wish I had invested the money intead of spending it.


I wish we had never sold that painting. We sold it for 6,000 pounds and it's worth ten times that figure now.



wish + could have (done)
· to refer to past possibilities.
I wish I could have done something, but it was impossible.


I really wish I could have gone, but I was just so busy.



María Ángeles A.
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