.

5. DEVELOPING CONVERSATIONS:


Passing on messages


It is polite to use imperatives to ask people to pass on messages.

imperative
+
pronoun
Tell her ...
Send her ...
Give her ...




6. GRAMMAR: Supposed to be -ing and should


be going to /
present continuous

(remember what you learnt in Básico 2 - Grammar)
· when we have plans or intentions or we have arranged something for the future.
I'm meeting a friend later. We're going to see a film.
My boyfriend just proposed me. We're going to get married!
-
We're going to the beach on Sunday. Do you want to come?
Here you have the invitation. We're getting married in June.
be supposed to be -ing
· when you can't (or don't want to) do what you arranged.
I'm supposed to be meeting a friend later, but I think I'm going to cancel. I'm feeling a bit rough.
We are supposed to be going to the beach on Sunday, but I'm not sure we will now. The weather forecast is dreadful.



should / shouldn't
· we have a positive feeling or expectation about a future event.
(Don't use them when you expect something bad, e.g. I'm afraid the infection should (is going to / will) be painful and you might be sore for a few hours afterwars.)
It should be good. I'm sure you'll have a great time.
He shouldn't find the exam too difficult. I'm sure he'll pass.





12. GRAMMAR: Determiners


Determiners go before nouns or pronouns to show which things you mean.

for singular nouns:
a / an
each
every
another
this / that
(the) whole
a car / an apple
each car
every car
another car
this car / that car
the whole car
for plural countable nouns:
these / those
(a) few
other
many
both
these cars / those cars
those cars
(a) few cars
other cars
many cars
both cars
for uncountable nouns
much
much sugar
for countable plural nouns
many
many people
for plural countable and uncountable nouns
both ... and
all
some
little
half (of)
none of
both oranges and sugar
all oranges / all sugar
some oranges / some sugar
little oranges / little sugar
half of the students / half of the class
None of the people I spoke to knows muh about the problem. (= "not a single one of"; we use a singular or plural verb form, although singular is more formal)
for all kinds of nouns
my
no
my car / my cars / my orange juice
no car / no cars / no orange juice


The use of "of":
Determiners don't normally have of between them and the noun they refer to:
· each person / each of person.
· several hospitals / several of hospitals.
· no doctors / no of doctors.

However, of follows when they are used with another determiner:
· each of my sisters.
Also, with pronouns, they are usually followd by of:
· both of them
· most of us

(Now do the activities on page 86)



Remember, determiners go before nouns or pronouns to show which things you mean.

Negative determiners:
neither (of)
Neither of my friends came to the party.
no
They had no record of my appointment.
any
You have to pay for any treatment you need.


Grammar structure:
determiners + nouns
a few people
each person
several hospitals
no doctors
determiners + of + determiners + nouns
either of the two boys
each of my sisters
determiners + of + pronouns
both of them
most of us
several of them


Used as pronouns ? (used instead of a noun):

Some determiners can be used as pronouns:
both
I like both.

those
Those are nice.



Some determiners can´t be used as pronouns:
a
(you have to use one / some)

no
(you have to use none)

my
(you have to use mine)

none of + a plural noun / pronoun (= not a single one of): None of the people I spoke to knows much about the problem. (use a singular or plural verb form (singular is more formal)).



María Ángeles A.
.