You should have learnt all these verb tenses before starting Avanzado 2.



Present Simple
(+) I usually stay at home on Sundays.
(-) I don't have children.
(?) Do you smoke everyday?
Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
· for things you do with a certain frequency (everyday, every week, every year, ...) or which are always true.
- can be used with adverbs of frequency (always, often, sometimes, usually, hardly ever, never, ...). They go before the main verb but after be.
- can be used with expressions of frequency (every day, once a week, ...). They usually go at the end of a sentence.

Present Continuous
(+) I'm watching TV now.
(-) I'm not watching TV now.
(?) Are you watching TV now?
Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.
· for things heppening now, right now, at the moment.
- Some verbs are not normally used in the present continuous: like, want, have (=possess), need, ...


Be very careful because in Avanzado 2 you still tend to mix the concept of the past simple with the past perfect!!!!

Past Simple
(regular and irregular)
(+) I called Susan and she came.
(-) He didn't wash his car. / She didn't see the movie.
(?) Did you arrive on time? / Did you buy it?
Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.
· to talk about finished actions in the past.
- can be used with two hours ago, yesterday, last week, last year, ...
Past simple wiki.JPG

Past Continuous
(was / were + vb -ing)
(+) I was driving home yesterday at five o'clock.
I was watching TV when the phone rang.
I was watching TV while she was reading.
(-) I wasn't looking at her when she fainted.
(?) Was he having a shower when I phoned?
What were you doing at 9pm?
Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.
· to describe and action in progress at a specific moment in the past.
- you usually use the past continuous to say what you where doing at a certain time, day or date (at five o'clock, last Monday, on January 2nd, ...) or to make a contrast with another action (usually a past simple or another past continuous).


(be) going to + infinitive
(+) I'm going to quit smoking.
I'm going to stay in London for a few weeks next summer.
(-) We aren't going to stay very long in London.
(?) Are you going to travel somewhere next summer?
Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.
· to talk about future plans.
- you haven't made any arrangaments yet, it's just a plan you have in your mind, may or may even not know when to do it.

(be) going to + infinitive
(+) Look at those clouds, it's going to rain soon.
(-) She's not going to pass the exam, she's studying very little.
(?) When is your brother going to visit the newborn?
· to talk about predictions.
- you usally base your prediction on a reason or evidence.

Present Continuous for future arrangements
(+) I'm travelling to London on December 5th.
(-) We aren't visiting The Tower this time, maybe next year.
(?) Are you visiting the Windsor Castle?
Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.
· for future arrangements which we have planned for a fixed time or place.
- usually with the expressions: tonight, tomorrow, this weekend ...
- Don't use the present simple for this!!! (I see some friends tonight.)

will / won't + infinitive
(+) Arsenal will win the match.
You'll love London.
(-) I think I won't be late today.
(?) Will you win the lottery this year?
Yes, I will. / No, I won't.
· to talk about predictions.
- you usally base your prediction on your opinion.
- We often use I think / I don't think ... + will ... (I think he'll fail the exam. I don't think he'll pass the exam.) NOT I think he won't pass.
- Sometimes in (+) sentences with I and we, people use shall (not will), but this is very formal (for example, in a business letter). I shall write to you when I have studied your case.
- the future of there is / are = there will be.
- the future of I can = I'll be able to (NOT I'll can).

will / won't + infinitive
(promises, offers, and instant decisions)
(+) I will take the train at 8pm (instant decision)
I'll help you with the dishes. (offer)
I'll always love you. (promise)
(-) I won't have the coke, I'll have water. (instant decision)
I won't tell your secret. (promise)
(?) Will you marry me? (promise / offer)
Shall I open the door? (offer)
· for making instant decisions, offering, and promising. (I'll help you with those bags. NOT I help you.).
- use Shall I ...? / Shall we ...? when an offer is a question. (Shall I pay? Shall we call you tonight at 9.00?)

These are other grammar structures you should have also learnt by now.

Defining relative clauses:
who, which, where
A teacher is a person who works at school.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
This is the shop where I bought my bike.
· to explain what a place, thing, or person is or does.
· who (person), which (thing), where (place).
- you can use that instead of who or which.

so, because, but, although
He was driving fast because he didn't want to be late. (reason)
He didn't want to be late so he was driving fast. (result)
She wanted to buy the bracelet but she didn't have enough money.
Although she wanted to buy the bracelet, she didn't have enough money.
She wanted to buy the bracelet although (a pesar de que) she didn't have enough money.
· because to express a reason.
· so to express a result.
· but and although to show a contrast.
- although can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.