.
"Eli se ha comprado unos pantalones. Los pantalones son de algodón. España es uno de los países que más algodón producen. En Andalucía se siembra mucho algodón."

La falta de planificación hace que muchas intervenciones espontáneas carezcan de la coherencia necesaria: los falsos comienzos, las rectificaciones, las omisiones, las alusiones, las frases inacabadas, las repeticiones, etc., son fenómenos constantes en la conversación cotidiana que nunca deberían aparecer en un texto escrito expositivo.




· Some Top Writing Errors

Grammar and Usage
1.
Lack of clarity (coherence and cohesion)
2.
Redundancy (unnecessary words or even loss of the point)
3.
Problems with subject-verb agreement
4.
Incorrect voice (active versus passive voice)
Sentences
5.
Fragments (incomplete sentences)
6.
Too long sentences or paragraphs (coherence and cohesion)
Spelling
7.
Missing letters
8.
Extra letters
9.
Transposed letters
10.
Incorrect plurals
11.
Errors in confusing word pairs (such as weather/whether)
Punctuation
12.
Missing commas or extra commas
13.
Missing or misused apostrophes
14.
Misused exclamation marks
15.
Misused semicolons
Capitalization
16.
Proper nouns not capitalized
Proofreading
17.
Missing words




· An Essay: Five Paragraphs


An essay is about a presentation of not only your ideas but also the ideas that you've acquired which prove that you understand the subject.
An essay is made up of a series of units, let's say 5 units (which will be the paragraphs):
In units 2 and 3 you will demonstrate to the reader that you know what you're talking about. These paragraphs need to establish that everything is balanced, for example, in an argumentative essay the second paragraph would be the reasons for and the third paragraph the reasons against.
There is only one way to write an essay and that is to plan it. The plan is about what you are not going to say at the beginning. The plan is about getting your main idea, your best ideas, on paper and saving them for the *crunch (paragraph 4).
1.
Introduction
· you establish how you intend to answer the question.
2.
(4) Reasons for
· reasons for
or
· facts
3.
Reasons against
· reasons against
or
· reasons for and against
4.
*Crunch
· here you establish that maybe some of the points in paragraph 2 or 3 are not points you agree with. It's your argumentative paragraph.
· you may add your own special bit of information which is so important to your essay.
It could be the longest paragraph where you back up your facts with good quotations, where you present your argument in a clever logical ordered way.
5.
Conclusion
· It follows naturally from the crunch. (If you want to start a new idea in this paragraph, you better start a new essay. So don't add anything new, it's a waste of time.)
*crunch = momento cumbre





· What is a good employer?

You can try to follow the instructions of this video:

TOPIC: What qualities do you think make up a good employer. Write an essay that identifies the qualities you think a good employer has, giving specific examples to back up your ideas.

The writing might take you about 45 minutes.

First, you should organize your ideas and it shouldn't take you more than 5 minutes.
1. Make a brainstorm of ideas:
honesty / integrity / ethics
good benefits
longevity (how long the company has been working)
good / fair salary
advancement (offer chances for advancement)
demographics
company's goals / plans

2. Choose at least three things (from the list) you want to talk about:
First, decide the order you want to talk about these topics (what order makes sense to talk about).
1.
benefits:
· health insurance / copays
· vacation / holiday
· profits
· company contribution
2.
advancement:
· how long until promotion
· reimbursment for education
· offer training
3.
salary:
· raises (how often?)
· cost of living
· hours / overtime

Now you are ready to start writing your five paragraphs:

3. Introduction:
· Take the prompt and turn it into a topic sentence: "Lots of people have variant opinions on what qualities should make a better employer but I have a top three".
· The introduction is like a small version of what the whole essay looks like, so also, introduce what you are going to talk about in the body of the essay: "The first (thing that I feel is important about good employers are the benefits they offer) / Second (would be the advance program) / The third (would be what do they pay)." (this example is very basic, you should elaborate it a bit more).
· Finish the introduction saying something like this: "These are the qualities that I look for when I'm trying to make a decision about whether this is a good employer to work for". The end is like the topic sentence, but using different words.

4. Body of the essay:
· write an explanation about the three things you chose (say what you are going to talk about and talk about it). Write three paragraphs (one paragraph for each idea):
1: benefits: ("it's important that they cover some of my health insurance, and give me a profit-sharing").

· Close the body or each point with a conclusion sentence: "A fair employer is the one who covers all this kind benefits because this is what I need" (very basic explanation)

5. Conclusion: should look like the introduction. "In conclusion, a company that doesn't offer these things is a company that doesn't interest me / makes me keep looking." (very simple conclusion)

Be careful and don't abuse using the same vocabulary: use synonyms or say it with other words.

Now, you are ready to start writing.






· An Essay: Four Paragraphs


Before writing an essay:
1. Organize your thoughts.

Idea 1:
Example 1
Example 2
TOPIC:
Idea 2:
Example 1
Example 2
Example 3

Idea 3:
Example 1
Example 2
· Also decide what vocabulary you are going to include.
· Make coherence sentences.
· Think about a general idea according to the topic, and some examples that explain your ideas.
It is a common mistake to think that you must write different than what you speak in order to impress the reader (although in Avanzado 2 you should "impress" the teacher with all the things you've learnt this year).
Write as though you had someone sitting across from you, and you are going to explain to them what you wanted to write. Imagine that person doesn't know anything about your topic, so you have to make yourself sound clear (with coherence).

Use words to make sentences, and sentences to make paragraphs.

Typical mistakes people make when they write an essay:
· they fail to write on the topic as it's stated and write on something different.
· they tend to mix their ideas and examples together instead of keeping them organized and separated.
· they jump off the topic in the middle of the essay and begin to write on something not connected to the stated topic.

2. Take this estructure into account: (08:00')
Paragraph 1:
INTRODUCTION (about 4 short sentences)
is where you'll introduce the things you're going to explain in the following paragraphs.
Paragraphs 2 and 3:
THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
explain the things you introduced in the first paragraph.
Paragraph 4:
CONCLUSION
you sum up everything.

3. Don't overwrite sentences (don't repeat the same ideas using the same words). Overwritten sentences can be cloudy, foggy and unclear. It's better to write short, clear, concise sentences to start with, rather than to confuse the reader with *clatter overwitten sentences.

*clatter = repiquetear

4. It's better to use opposite ideas (one good and one bad) in order to talk about for and against facts.



Now practise with these topics:



essay - A Television essay TOPIC.JPG

essay - Fewer Children Essay TOPIC.JPG

essay - Taxes Essay TOPIC.JPG
1.
INTRODUCTION (4 short sentences)
essay - paragraph 1.JPG


(65 words)
essay - A Television essay - paragraph 1.JPG

(57 words)
essay - Fewer Children Essay paragraph 1.JPG

(50 words)
essay - Taxes Essay paragraph 1.JPG
2.
THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
essay - paragraph 2.JPG


(74 words)
essay - A Television essay - paragraph 2.JPG

(65 words)
essay - Fewer Children Essay paragraph 2.JPG

(85 words)
essay - Taxes Essay paragraph 2.JPG
3.
THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
essay - paragraph 3.JPG


(87 words)
essay - A Television essay - paragraph 3.JPG

(73 words)
essay - Fewer Children Essay paragraph 3.JPG

(61 words)
essay - Taxes Essay paragraph 3.JPG
4.
CONCLUSION
essay - paragraph 4.JPG


(74 words)
essay - A Television essay - paragraph 4.JPG

(72 words)
essay - Fewer Children Essay paragraph 4.JPG

(59 words)
essay - Taxes Essay paragraph 4.JPG

Other topics:
Topic 4: More and more people are living by themselves today. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living alone? Write a 200 word essay explaining the advantages, the disadvantages, or both of living alone.

Topic 5: The automobile has had a profound effect on modern life. Some of these effects have been positive and others negative. Discuss the positive effects, the negative effects of both in a 200 word essay.





· An Essay: Five Paragraphs


1. Understand the question: "Winning is all that matters. Do you agree and why?"

2. Thesis Statement: is the direction you want your argument to follow (that is, would you say "yes" or "no").

- Introduction:
Paragraph 1
is a brief overview of what the essay is going to be about.
- Body:
Paragraph 2 (financial benefits)
· point 1
· point 2
· point 3

Paragraph 3 (social and emotional benefits)
· point 1
· point 2
· point 3

Paragraph 4
· point 1
· point 2
· point 3
- Conclusion:
Paragraph 5




How to End an Essay or Story:

how to end an essay or story 01.jpg

how to end an essay or story 02.jpg


how to end an essay or story 03.jpg


how to end an essay or story 04.jpg


how to end an essay or story 05.jpg


how to end an essay or story 06.jpg




· Opinion essays:





· A Sample Narrative Essay:

essay structure 01.png




essay format 02.jpg


essay format 03.jpg


Essay example 05.png


Essay example 03.jpg


Essay example 01.PNG
a sample narrative essay - How I Learnt Swimming.JPG




If you want to review possible examples of Linking words, click here:
Linking words and phrases 01.jpeg
Linking words wiki 02.jpg





If you still have doubts about how to write an essay, keep on reading:

· Argumentative composition


Cómo escribir un ensayo argumentativo (essay)

Tips


1 En este tipo de composición se trata de exponer argumentos a favor o en contra de una idea u opinión, intentar resolver un problema, sugerir soluciones alternativas a un problema o presentar dos posturas de un tema controvertido. Sea cual sea la tarea asignada, lee atentamente el enunciado y asegúrate de que entiendes bien lo que se pide.

2 Antes de planificar tu texto, decide qué punto de vista vas a defender. Piensa en las ideas que vas a expresar. Prepara el vocabulario específico que vas a utilizar y sinónimos.

3 Planifica la redacción cuidadosamente atendiendo a una estructura que deberá tener:a. Introducción: Un párrafo ( 3 oraciones) donde se explicará la situación, problema o un adelanto de la postura personal que se vaya a argumentar. No empieces tu essay con fórmulas de tipo I'm going to write about this or that topic. Pincha aquí para ver cómo escribir una introducción.b. Desarrollo: Dos o tres párrafos ( de 5 a 7 oraciones en cada uno). Se expondrán los argumentos a favor o en contra que refuercen tu postura, añadiendo ejemplos. **Aquí**, **aquí** y **aquí** encontrarás consejos sobre cómo desarrollar ideas y cómo conectarlas con eficacia.c. Conclusión: Un párrafo (dos o tres oraciones) servirá para resumir tu opinión, ideas principales previamente desarrolladas, interpretación de los hechos o expresar qué ocurrirá en el futuro si la situación abordada persiste o cambia. Nunca añadas una nueva información en este apartado porque se te haya ocurrido al final. Aunque en la conclusión se resumen ideas, NO repetir vocabulario ya utilizado antes, utiliza sinónimos. La repetición es penalizada por los examinadores, ya que demuestra un limitado vocabulario. Lee estos otros consejos y algunos ejemplos de conclusión.> Haz un esquema-borrador con las ideas que incluirás en cada una de las tres partes. Finalmente, empieza a redactar sin olvidar utilizar conectores para introducir ideas o argumentos.

4 Aunque se exprese una opinión personal, evita el abuso de “I” en la medida de lo posible.

5 Éste es probablemente el tipo de texto más difícil de elaborar, por eso es necesario estudiar bien el tema y reflexionar previamente para presentar las ideas y argumentos de una forma lógica y coherente.

En este enlace encontrarás más consejos prácticos para escribir argument essays además de numerosos ejemplos sobre diversidad de temas.

Ejemplos de ensayos (essays, argumentative compositions):

Cause and effect 1
Cause and effect 2

Problem and solution 1
Problem and solution 2

Más ejemplos 1
Más ejemplos 2


Exercises:

Exercise 1
Key to exercise 1

Exercise 2
Key to exercise 2

Exercise 3
Key to exercise 3











María Ángeles A.

.