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6. GRAMMAR


· The Future Continuous


· It is often used to talk about things you have arranged to do in the future, especially when you now want to talk about another thing that will happen during this action.

1.
will be + vb. -ing
· I will be visiting Spain for the trade fair (= already arranged) so I could fit in a day with you then (= event just decided now).
· I will be popping out to the café in a while. (= already arranged / decided) Can I get you anything? (= while I am doing this at that time in the future)

=



2.
(be) going to be + vb. -ing
I am going to be visiting Spain for the trade fair (= already arranged) so I could fit in a day with you then (= event just decided now).
· I am going to be talking to the area manager later, (= already arranged / decided) so I'll raise your concerns with her. (= while I am doing this at that time in the future)



· If we want people to do things for us, we often use the future continuous to ask (or talk) about plans. It sounds polite.
1.

=

2.
A. Are you going to the seeing Max later? I promised I'd get this report to him today.
B. Yeah, I should be. Do you want me to take it with me?


· It is also used to talk about something that will be in progress at a particular time (or over a particular period of time) in the future.
1.
· I can't make Friday. I'll be attending a conference in Bolton.
· That's a good question. I'll be talking about that later on.
=

2.
· You are not going to be doing any sport for a while after the operation.











13. GRAMMAR


Expressing necessity and ability


You started to see "can" in básico 1 and "must" in básico 2.

· They only appear in the present tense:
· They don't have infinitive forms:
· We use "have to" (infinitive forms).
· I will be glad to not have to study for exams anymore.



· They don't have -ing forms:
· We use "being able to" (-ing forms).
· It's a real pain not being able to access my email.



· They don't have future forms:
· We use "have to" (future will / future goint to).
· It's a risk more investors are going to (must) have to take.
· It's a problem the company is going to have to deal with.

· We use "be able to" (future).
· It' will soon (can) be able to produce its own plastic.



· They don't have past forms:
· We use "be able to" (past).
· I haven't been able to contact the warehouse today, I'm afraid.

To show something makes another thing possible, we can use:
· enable somebody to do something
· The prize has enabled him to build a mini-hydroelectric plant.
· The report has enabled us to improve all areas of our service.
· allow somebody to do something
· The software allows you to create a personalised doll.
· The device basically allows you to avoid traffic jams.
· let somebody to do something
· The investment should let us keep our best staff!

To show something makes an obligation, we can use:
· force somebody to do something
· High fuel costs forced him to close down the plant.
· High overhead forced us to relocate to a less central area.

- We can use force in the passive intead of have to: · The company was forced to close down its main plant.
· make somebody do something
· The crisis has made us reassess our whole approach.

overhead = gastos generales









If the fist chart was made out from your book. It might be incomplete and not very clear. If it is still a bit confusing for you, try with these other charts:

· Using "can" in Present, Past, and Future
Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "can" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use
Present form:
Past form:
Future form:
You can also use:
can:
GENERAL ABILITY
· I can speak Chinese.
· I can't speak Swahili.
· I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.
· I couldn't speak Swahili.
· I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.
· I won't be able to speak Swahili.
be able to
can:
ABILITY DURING A SPECIFIC EVENT
· With a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars.
· Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can't pick up something that heavy.
· With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he was able to lift the car off the child's leg.
· Even the weight lifter, wasn't able to lift the car off the child's leg.
· With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he will be able to lift the car.
· Even three men working together won't be able to lift the car.
be able to
can:
OPPORTUNITY
· I have some free time. I can help her now.
· I don't have any time. I can't help her now.
· I had some free time yesterday. I was able to help her at that time.
· I didn't have time yesterday. I wasn't able to help her at that time.
· I'll have some free time tomorrow. I can help her then.
· I won't have any time later. I can't help her then.
be able to
can:
PERMISSION
· I can drive Susan's car when she is out of town.
· I can't drive Susan's car when she is out of town.
· I was allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week.
· I wasn't allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week.
· I can drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week.
· I can't drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week.
may
can:
REQUEST
· Can I have a glass of water?
· Can you give me a lift to school?
· Can't I have a glass of water?
· Can't you give me a lift to school?


could / may
can:
IMPOSSIBILITY
· Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.
· Learning a language can be a real challenge.
· It can't cost more than a dollar or two.
· You can't be 45! I thought you were about 18 years old.


could



· Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future

"Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts.
Use
Present form:
Past form:
Future form:
You can also use:
have to:
CERTAINTY
· That has to be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.
· That must not be Jerry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair.
· That has to have been the right restaurant. There were no other restaurants on the street.
· That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere.
· NONE.
· NONE.
must,
have got to
haveo to:
NECESSITY
· She has to read four books for this literature class.
· She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath." It's optional reading for extra credit.
· She had to finish the first book before the midterm.
· She didn't have to write a critique of "The Scarlet Letter." She had to give a presentation to her class.
· She will have to finish the other books before the final exam.
· She won't have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only required course.
must

REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not"
"Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something.

Examples:
  • You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  • You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.



· Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future

Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts.
Modal Use
Present form:
Past form:
Future form:
You can also use:
must
CERTAINTY
· That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.
· That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair.
· That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street.
· That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere.
· NO FUTURE FORM
· NO FUTURE FORM
have to
must not
PROHIBITION

· You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles.
· You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics.
·
·

must
STRONG RECOMMENDATION
(Americans prefer the form "shold")
· You must take some time off and get some rest.
· You mustn't drink so much. It's not good for your health.
· You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest.
· You shouldn't have drunk so much. That caused the accident.
· You should take some time off next week to get some rest.
· You shouldn't drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver.
should
must
NECESSITY
("Americans prefer the form "have to")
· You must have a permit to enter the national park.
· We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park.
· We had to have a permit to enter the park.
· We didn't have to get a permit to enter the national park.
· We must get a permit to enter the park next week.
· We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park.
have to



REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to"
"Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something.

Examples:
  • You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed.
  • You don't have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.




Taken from: http://www.englishpage.com/modals/

EXERCISES for modal verbs:






María Ángeles A.


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