.

1. VOCABULARY


You already started to learn food vocabulary in Básico 1 (click here):
· http://basico1englisheoi.wikispaces.com/Unit+9A
· http://basico1englisheoi.wikispaces.com/Unit+9B
· http://basico1englisheoi.wikispaces.com/Unit+9Practical+English


· Food

(All these vocabulary is from the Student's Book.)
almond


basil
15 basil.jpg
albahaca
beetroot
15 beetroot.jpg
a variety of the beet plant, Beta vulgaris, that has a bulbous dark red root that may be eaten as a vegetable, in salads, or pickled.
brocoli


cabbage


celery


chicken stock
15 chicken stock.jpg
caldo de pollo
chickpeas
chickpeas wiki.jpg

chilli
15 chillli.jpg

chocolate


cloves of garlic
15 cloves of garlic.jpg

coconut


coconut milk


cod
15 cod.jpg
bacalao
corn cobs
15 corn cobs.jpg

courgette
courgette wiki.jpg

dough
15 dough.jpg

eel


fennel


fig


ginger
15 ginger.jpg

grape


grapefruit
grapefruit wiki.jpg

hazelnuts


herbs


kidney bean


lemon grass
15 lemongrass.jpg

lentils


melon


mint


octopus


orange


oyster


parsley


parsnip
15 parsnip.jpg
the root of this plant, eaten as a vegetable
peach


pepper


plum


pumpkin


radish


raisin


red lentils
15 red lentils.jpg

rosemary


salmon


spring onion
15 spring onions.jpg

squash
15 squash.jpg

sweet potato
15 sweet potato.jpg

tomato


trout /traut/


turnip


whisked eggs
15 whisked eggs.JPG
huevo batido
yeast
15 yeast.jpeg



Check out this vocabulary:
15 1 vocabulary.jpg





Activity B from the Student's Book:

vegetable = verdura, hortaliza.
tuber /'tju:bə/ = tubérculo.
fruits:
grapes, tomato, plum, coconut, fig, orange, peach
nuts:
almond, raisin, hazelnuts
vegetables:
brocoli, turnip, parsnip, courgette, ginger, sweet potato, corn cobs, cabbage, pumpkin, radish, celery, fennel, spring onion, pepper, chili, beetroot
pulses:
lentils
beans:
kidney bean
herbs:
mint, parsley, rosemary
fish:
trout /traut/, eel, salmon
seafood:
octopus (mollusc /'moləsk/), oyster




Vocabulary list of food:
· http://www.linguasorb.com/spanish/food-word-list
· http://www.speakenglish.co.uk/vocab/foods
· http://usefulenglish.ru/vocabulary/food-main-list


15 vocabulary food 01.jpg
15 vocabulary food 02.jpg
15 vocabulary food 03.jpg
15 vocabulary food 04.jpg



· Different methods of cooking:


Introduction

In cooking, there are some basic methods of cooking that are used. These commonly used basic cooking methods are divided into two general groups. The groups are: Dry heat cookery methods and Moist heat cookery methods. The methods of cooking are divided into these two groups because of the way food is cooked and the type of heat that is used.
Let us have a look at the Dry Heat cookery methods.


  • Dry heat Cookery Methods

In dry heat cooking methods, the food being cooked does not use water to cook the food. The food is left dry and heat is applied to cook the food. Such methods of cooking are: baking, steaming, grilling, and roasting. When heat is applied to the food, the food cooks in its own juice or the water added to the food during its preparation evaporates during the heating process and this cooks the food. Heat is applied directly to the food by way of convection thus making the food to get cooked. The action or movement of air around the food, cooks it. Let us now have a look at each of these cooking methods.

Baking
external image 180px-Bread.jpg
In baking method of cooking, the food is cooked using convection heating. The food is put into an enclosed area where heat is then applied and the movement of heat within the confined space, acts on the food that make it get cooked.
Steaming

To steam food, water is added to a pot and then a stand is placed inside the pot. The water level should be under the stand and not above it. There is no contact between the food and the water that is added to the pot. Food is then placed on the stand and heat is applied. The hot steam rising from the boiling water acts on the food and the food gets cooked. It is the hot steam that cooks the food, as there is no contact between the food and the water inside the pot. This method of cooking for vegetables is very good as the food does not lose its flavour and much of the nutrients are not lost during the cooking.
Grilling

There are two methods of grilling that are used these days. One type of grilling is the one that is commonly used by the people in the village. This is when food is cooked over hot charcoal on an open fire. The food is placed on top of the burning charcoal. Sometimes people improvise by using wire mesh and place it over the open fire to grill fish or vegetables. The other method is using grills that are inbuilt in stoves. In this method, the griller, which has a tray, is heated up and the food is placed on the grill tray to cook. The heat can be gas-generated or electric-generated depending on the type of stove used. The food is again left to cook on the grill with the doors of the grill open. People who can afford to buy a stove would use the grilling part to grill their food. What happens in this type of cooking is the heat seals the outside part of the food and the juice inside the food cooks it. The flavour of the food is not lost and much of the nutrients are not lost either. Food is frequently turned over to prevent it from burning and to ensure that equal heating and cooking time is applied to both sides of the food. By doing this, the food is cooked evenly and thoroughly.
Roasting
external image 180px-Roasted_chicken.jpg
With roasting, direct heat is applied to the food. The heat seals the outside part of the food and the juice inside the food cooks the food. Roasting is mainly used when cooking fleshy food like fish, meat or chicken. When heat is applied to the outer covering of the food, it seals it up thereby trapping all the juices inside the food. The action of direct heating, heats up the juices inside the food, which then cooks the food. Again there is very little nutrient lost and the flavour is not spoilt. Food is frequently rotated over the spit so that there is even heating applied to all parts of the food. This is so that heat is applied evenly to the food to make it get cooked properly.



  • Moist Heat Cookery Methods In moist heat cookery methods, liquid is used as a medium to cook the food. Such medium could be water, coconut cream or oil. These liquids are added to the food before heat is applied to it or sometimes heat is applied to the liquid before the food is added into the cooking utensils to be cooked. The moist heat cookery methods include: boiling, stewing, shallow frying, deep frying, barbequing and basting. All these moist heat cooking methods use liquid to cook the food in.

Boiling

This is the most common method of cooking and is also the simplest. With this method of cooking, enough water is added to food and it is then cooked over the fire. The action of the heated water makes the food to get cooked. The liquid is usually thrown away after the food is cooked. In the case of cooking rice, all the water is absorbed by the rice grains to make it get cooked. During the heating process, the nutrients can get lost or destroyed and the flavour can be reduced with this method of cooking. If you over cooked cabbage, all the nutrients can get lost.
Stewing

In the process of cooking using the stewing method, food is cooked using a lot of liquid. Different kinds of vegetables are chopped, diced or cubed and added to the pot. Sometimes pieces of selected meat, fish or chicken is also chopped and added to the stew. The liquid is slightly thickened and stewed food is served in that manner. This method is also used when preparing fruits that are going to be served as desserts. With this cooking method, every food is cooked together at the same time in one pot. The flavour, colours, shapes and textures of the different vegetables that are used, makes stewing a handy method of cooking. The only disadvantage is that some of the vegetables might be overcooked and thus the nutrient content becomes much less. It is therefore important that the vegetables that take the longest to cook to be put into the pot first and the ones that need least cooking to be put in last. In this way much of the nutrient contents of the food does not get lost.
Frying

When food is fried using oil or solid fat it is important that you observe some rules in handling oil or fat. Simple rules to follow when frying:
1.Make sure there is enough oil or fat put in the frying pan or a deep frying pan.
2.The food to be cooked must not have water dripping from it. This is because when water comes into contact with hot oil or fat, you will have the oil sizzling and spitting out of the pan, which could burn your skin if you are not careful.
3.Put the food into the hot oil carefully. Try not to make a big splash as the oil could burn your skin.
4.The oil of fat should be heated to the right temperature before putting food into the pan to be fried. If the food is put in when the oil or fat is not heated to the right temperature, the food will soak up the oil and you will have food that is all oily or greasy. If the oil or fat is over heated, you will end up with food that is burnt. Sometimes the food especially doughnuts will turn brown on the outside but the dough inside is uncooked. To cook food using the frying method, there are two ways of doing it.
There is the shallow frying and the deep frying methods.
Shallow Frying

In shallow frying, food is cooked in a frying pan with a little amount of oil or fat. The oil or fat is heated to the correct amount and the food is put into the heated oil. The food is turned over a few minutes or is stirred around a couple of times before it is cooked and dished out. If patties, potato chips or coated foods are fried, it is best to put a piece of brown paper or paper napkin inside the tray to soak up any oil from the food before serving it.
Deep Frying

This is when a lot of oil or fat is used in cooking the food. The oil or fat is usually put into a deep pan and is heated to boiling point. Food is then put into the hot boiling oil and is cooked in that way. Such food as fish fingers, potato chips, meat balls, and dough nuts to name a few, are cooked using the deep frying method.
Barbequing
external image Cooked_fish.jpg
The method of cooking food by barbequing is usually associated with fund raising activities, parties or picnics. It is most suitable to cooking meat cutlets, fish or chicken pieces. The food is usually marinated with spices and tenderizers (for meat cuts) for sometime before it is cooked. With this method of cooking, a sheet of metal with stands is heated up and oil is used to cook the food. A sufficient amount of oil is heated up and food is added. The food is then turned over a couple of times before it is dished out.
Basting

This method of cooking is usually associated with roasting. The juice or liquid that comes out of the meat being cooked is spooned over the roast frequently while it is being roasted. The outer part of the meat is moistened frequently during the cooking process with the juice that is being spooned over. Usually, the extra juice from the cooked meat is added to a mixture to make the meat sauce.






· Temperature for the meat

Temperature is a gauge of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the color, juiciness and internal temperature when cooked. The gradations of cooking are most often used in reference to beef (especially steak and roasts) but are also applicable to lamb, pork, poultry, veal, and seafood (especially fish).
Temperatures for beef, veal, lamb steaks and roasts||~ Term (French) ||~ Description ||||~ Temperature range ||~ USDA recommended ||
Extra-rare or Blue (bleu)
very red and cold
46–49 °C
115–120 °F

Rare (saignant)
cold red center; soft
52–55 °C
125–130 °F

Medium rare (à point)
warm red center; firmer
55–60 °C
130–140 °F
145 °F
Medium (demi-anglais)
pink and firm
60–65 °C
140–150 °F
160 °F
Medium well (cuit)
small amount of pink in the center
65–69 °C
150–155 °F

Well done (bien cuit)
gray-brown throughout; firm
71–100 °C
160–212 °F
170 °F
Over cooked (trop cuit, carbonisé")'
blacken throughout; hard
  • 100 °C
  • 212 °F
300 °F
.
15 degrees of steak doneness.jpg
15 degrees of steak doneness 02.jpg
15 degrees of steak doneness 03.jpg

Please don't overdo it! (no lo cocine "de más").



· Cuts of Beef

15 parts of the beef 01.jpg
15 parts of the beef 02.jpg



· Cuts of Pork

15 cuts of pork.jpg
15 cuts of pork 02.jpg



· Cuts of Lamb

15 cuts of lamb 03.jpg
15 cuts of lamb 01.gif
15 cuts of lamb 02.jpg





· Vocabulary related with cooking: VERBS

(The words in bold are the vocabulary from your book.)
add

Don't forget to add garlic.
bake
hornear
The cake needs to bake in the oven for 30 minutes.
barbecue / grill
hacer a la parrilla

baste /beist/
untar

beat
batir
She is beating the eggs.
blend
mezclar, combinar, juntar

boil

The water is boiling.
break


broil
asar
(UK) grill, cook directly over or uncer heat scource
(US) cook directly under heat source
burn
quemar

chop
cortar, picar, trocear
He is chopping the vegetables.
chuck
arrojar

combine
mezclar, combinar

cook


cover
tapar
It is important to cover the rice while it's cooking.
crush
machacar

cut


cut up into cubes
cortar en tacos medianos

dice
cortar en dados /en tacos

dry


flavour
dar sabor

fry

Heat the oil before frying the potatoes.
grate
rallar

grease
engrasar (poner mantequilla)

grill / barbecue
hacer a la parrilla
grill = gratinar (en el hornillo), asar / hacer a la parrilla
A form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.
heat
calentar

knead
amasar

marinate
marinar

measure
medir

melt


microwave
poner en el microondas

mill
moler

mince /mins/
moler, picar, trocear

mix
mezclar

peel

He is peeling the orange.
pickle
envinagrar

poach
escarfar, cocer

pour
verter
Can you pour me a glass of juice?
pre-heat
precalentar
Pre-heat the oven 10 minutes before.
reduce
reducir

remove


roast
asar, tostar, rostizar

roll
pasar el rodillo

salt
salar

sauté
saltear, sofreir

season
sazonar

shave
laminar, rallar

simmer
hervir a fuego lento

sizzle /'sizl/
chiporrotear, crepitar, hervir

slice
cortar en rebanadas
She is slicing the red pepper.
sour
agriar, amargar

soak
poner en remojo

spice up
poner pimienta

spoon
usar la cuchara, retirar con la cuchara

sprinkle
esparcir

squeeze
estrujar

steam
cocinar al vapor

stir
mezclar, remover
Stir the soup every five minutes.
stir-fry
saltear

strain /strein/
colar
It is important to strain the water from the pasta when it is done cooking.
stuff
meter, rellenar
It's a stuffed chicken.
sugar
endulzar con azúcar

wash


weigh
pesar

whisk
batir (con batidora)


FOOD PREPARATION AND RECIPES.jpg
1 cut (up)
5 peel
9 pour
13 put_in_
17 broil
21 simmer
2 chop (up)
6 break
10 add
14 cook
18 steam
22 roast
3 slice
7 beat
11 combine__and
15 bake
19 fry
23 barbecue/grill
4 grate
8 stir
12 mix_and_
16 boil
20 saute
24 stir-fry





25 microwave

.

cooking - food - picture dictionary -1.jpg

cooking - food - picture dictionary -2.jpg

cooking - food - picture dictionary -3.jpg

1 wash
2 peel
3 grate
4 chop


13 knead
14 steam
15 saute

16 pour
17 weigh

5 crush
6 beat
7 cut



18 boil
19 add
20 bake


25 measure

8 slice
9 grease
10 break
11 stir
12 mix

21 stir-fry
22 grill
23 roast

24 barbecue
26 fry




cooking.jpg

grate (rallar)
whisk (batir)
roll (hacer rodar, pasar el rodillo)
simmer (hervir/cocer a fuego lento)
poach (escalfar, cocer)
roast (asar)
grill (gratinar (en el hornillo), asar/hacer a la parrilla)








How to cook a pumpkin and lentil soup (listening track 15.1.):
1.
15 onion.JPG
15 cloves of garlic.jpg
15 ginger.jpg
Get a large onion and a couple of cloves of garlic and ginger.
2.
15 chop an onion.jpg
15 food processor.jpg

Chop them all really finely (she somethimes uses a food processor).
3.
15 oil in a pan.jpg
15 heat up.jpg

Put some oil in a pan and heat it up.
4.
15 chuck the onion in the oil.JPG
15 lemongrass.jpg

Chuck the stuff in the oil with a couple of bits of lemon grass (she sometimes puts in a whole chilli just to spice things up a bit).
5.
15 stir.JPG


Cook it quite quickly, but you have to keep stirring because you don't want it to burn.
6.
15 pumpkin cut up into cubes.jpg


Throw in the pumpkin cut up into cubes.
7.
15 red lentils.jpg
15 a tin of coconut milk.jpg

Add almost a cupful of red lentils and a tin of coconut milk.
8.
15 chicken stock 02.jpg
15 boiling chicken stock.JPG

Add about litre or so of chicken stock and bring it to the boil.
9.
15 reduce the heat.jpg
15 15 minutes.jpg

Once it's boiling, reduce the heat and leave it for 15 minutes or so, till the pumpkin is soft.
10.
15 lemongrass.jpg


Take out the lemon grass.
11.
15 blend the pumpkin soup.jpg


Blend it till it's smooth.
12.
15 sprinkle parsley.jpg
15 a pinch of salt.jpg

Sprinkle a bit of chopped parsley (but basil is nice as well) and a pinch or two or salt.


· Kitchen Utensils:

15 1 vocabulary cooking utensils wiki.jpg












2. LISTENING


MEASURES

(The words in bold are from the Student's Book.)
a can
15 a tin.jpg
(US) lata, bote, envase; (US) a tin
a couple of bits of

un par de trozos de
a cup full
15 a cup full.jpg

a litre


a pinch

pellizco
a tin
15 a tin.jpg
(UK) lata, bote, envase; (US) a can








15 vocabulary food 05.jpg





How to write a recipe:


Before starting to write:
· you need to know the exact ingredients, measurements and volumes

Title the recipe:
A descriptive title will help attract people to your recipe and set it apart from the thousands of variations out there. There's no need to get too descriptive - your recipe will speak for itself once it's cooked! Just come up with a title that sounds appetizing and appealing, with a personal twist if you're so inclined. A few examples:
  • Tricia's Cocoa Brownies
  • Sweet and Sour Chicken Soup
  • Crunchy Salty Oatmeal Cookies
  • Uncle Pete's Famous Clam Chowder


Introduction:
Consider writing a short introduction. If your recipe has a special history, consider including a short introduction so readers will know how much heart and soul has gone into its creation. Write about who first cooked the recipe, tweaks that have been made over the years, or anecdotes about times people in your family have enjoyed it.


When writing the ingredients:
· don't use "of" when you list the ingredients
· use consistent abbreviations for measurements, for example, tsp or tbs for teaspoon or tablespoon
· if an ingredient doesn't have a numerical measurement, capitalize it. For example, Olive oil.
· list the ingredients in the order you use them (because it's easy for the reader to keep track of which ingredients have been used).
· if your recipe is about a dish where some ingredients are sifted together at once, list them in order of volume, for example a cake: 2 cups flour, 1 teaspoon baking soda, 1/4 teaspoon salt, etc.
· write "divided" after ingredients to be used in several parts. In many cases you may need to use one ingredient in several different steps in the recipe. For example, you may cream butter with sugar to make coffee cake batter, then use butter again later to make a crumb topping. For instances like these, list the total amount of butter followed by the word "divided" - as in, 6 tablespoons butter, divided.
· break the list into more than one part, if necessary. If the recipe has two or more separate components, like pie crust and pie filling, divide the ingredient list into two or more sections. Title each section appropriately. Write For the filling, For the crust, and so on.
· list generic items instead of name brands. Unless a specific product is absolutely necessary to make your recipe turn out correctly, try to list generic, raw ingredients instead of name brand products. For example, instead of writing 2 cups Angelsoft flour write 2 cups cake flour.
· include simple techniques in the ingredient list. In order to make the method section of your recipe less wordy, you can include simple techniques like chopping, mincing, and melting as part of the ingredient list. List the ingredient measurement first, followed by the technique. Here are a few examples:
  • 1 cup butter, melted
  • 2 tablespoons shallots, minced
  • 1 1/2 cups bell pepper, finely chopped
  • 2 apples, peeled and sliced


When writing the body of the recipe:
· use the imperative form.
· describe the equipment needed. Be very specific about the size, shape and composition of the supplies needed to cook a dish. For example, write Use a 9-inch pie pan or In a large cast iron skillet or frying pan, to direct your readers as carefully as possible.
  • Let readers know if one type of equipment can be substituted for another. For example, a blender might do in the absence of a food processor.
  • You may want to include a list of special equipment needed - a double boiler, kitchen twine, a baking stone, and so on.

· write clear, easy-to-read descriptions of the process. Break it down into simple steps and describe each technique using common cooking or baking terminology. Long, complicated steps should be separated into their own paragraphs to make the method easier to follow. Don't use too many adjectives or provide too much information - just the minimum needed for the recipe to turn out right. Here are a few examples:
  • Melt the butter in a large cast iron skillet over medium high heat. Add the shallots and onion and saute until translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and saute for 1 minute longer.
  • Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Beat in the eggs one at a time. In a separate bowl, sift together the flour, baking soda and salt.

· write exact temperatures and cooking times. If the recipe calls for the use of an oven, be sure to write exactly what temperature to preheat it to. For stovetop cooking instructions, use common terms like "medium high" and "medium low" to indicate how hot the pan should be.
  • Temperatures can also be described through techniques. For example, write simmer on medium low to indicate that a soup shouldn't be at a rolling boil.
  • Indicate how long the food should cook. Write Bake for 20 - 25 minutes or Cover and let simmer for 1 1/2 hours.

· add hints to help the cook stay on track. Since everyone's oven and stove are a little different, it's helpful to add hints about how the food should look, feel and smell at various steps. Here are a few examples:
  • Bake until the cheese is bubbly, about 15 minutes.
  • Bake until the top is brown and crisp.
  • Simmer until the flavors have melded.
  • Cook until the custard is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon.
  • Cook until the quiche filling is just set.
  • Cook until the salmon's flesh is opaque and firm.

· separate complicated steps into paragraphs. Recipes with multiple complicated techniques need a method section that is broken down into separate paragraphs. Each paragraph should encompass a complete part of the recipe. In a pie recipe, for example, separate the method for making the crust from the method for making the filling.

· describe how to finish the dish. The last part of the method should indicate how to complete the dish, whether that means letting it cool for 10 minutes before slicing or garnishing with chopped cilantro. Describe how the final dish should look and taste so your readers will know what to expect.


Making final touches:
· provide helpful information. Add any extra information that readers should know when they're cooking the recipe. Here are a few things you might want to include:
  • List how many servings the recipe provides.
  • Write how long the recipe takes to make, including prep and cooking time.
  • Include serving suggestions, such as optional garnishes or other dishes that pair well with the recipe (e.g. "Top with a scoop of vanilla bean ice cream" or "Serve with slices of crusty baguette."
  • Include ingredient substitutions to account for dietary restrictions (e.g. "Cashews may be substituted for walnuts" or "Use tofu instead of chicken to make the dish vegetarian").
  • Give sufficient warnings about any problems which may occur during the cooking. An example of this might be Do not open the oven door while baking, or your cake may fall, or Do not let the oil get too hot on the stove.

· consider composition. When you're writing your recipe, compose it in a way that makes it easy to read. If you wish, sprinkle photos throughout to make instructions even easier to follow. The standard information order in recipes is as follows:
  • Title
  • Introduction (optional)
  • Ingredient list
  • Method
  • Number of servings
  • Cooking/prep time

· test your recipe. Once your recipe is complete, cook it again to test it. You might also want to share it with someone else who has never made it before. See if the recipe as you wrote it turns out "just right." If it is too sour, sweet, salty, spicy, or otherwise fails the taste test, consider what you might do to correct the problem, then begin the process over again.
  • Guessing an adjustment, either in ingredients, cooking times, or temperatures does not always yield success. This is the reason "Test kitchens" are operated like laboratories, and results are carefully documented and repeated.


Adapted from: http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Recipe
  1. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/how-write-recipe
  2. http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/how-write-recipe
  3. http://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-write-a-recipe-58522
  4. http://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-write-a-recipe-58522












Do the quiz:




Do the quiz:




Do the quiz:




Do the quiz:




Do the quiz:



Do the quiz:







3. DEVELOPING CONVERSATIONS

Vague Language


15 3 Developing conversations vague languagge wiki.jpg








4. GRAMMAR

Linking Words


15 4 Grammar Linking words wiki.jpg








5. CONVERSATION PRACTICE


Spanish Cuisine:
1.
cordero a la miel
2.
garbanzos con chocos
3.
gazpacho
4.
habas con jamón
5.
migas
6.
papas alinás
7.
pipirrana
8.
potaje de garbanzos
9.
rabo de toro
10.
salmorejo




6. READING


The difference between a fact and an opinion is at the core that a fact can be proven.
· Usually a fact is supported by research, study, evaluation or precedence.
· An opinion is one that each person may make, based on personal beliefs, thoughts, values and cultural mores. Opinions are not supported, necessarily, be hard scientific fact, rather they are more like a belief.
One may be of the opinion that the earth is flat. Fact states that the earth is not flat. But the person's opinion is theirs, and they are entitled to it whether it makes sense or has been borne out through a factual validation or not. It is simply how the feel about something. Which is why it is generally pointless (and frustrating!) to argue another's opinion. Facts are not arguable, either. But for very different reasons. Facts are proven and documented, and are generally accepted by all. Someone may not like the facts, but they are in reality the truth.



make a scene
a noisy argument or strong show of feeling in a public place
trademark
a name or design that belong to one organisation and is used on its products


Vocabulary from the reading text:
flare up

(informal) a sudden burst of emotion or violence
full-blown

characterized by the fullest, strongest, or best development
haddock
15 haddock.jpg
(in Spanish eglefino) a North Atlantic gadoid food fish, Melanogrammus aeglefinus: similar to but smaller than the cod
hiss

a voiceless fricative sound like that of a prolonged s
issue

to come forth or emerge or cause to come forth or emerge
make a fuss

(to) make a scandal
mutter /ˈmʌtəʳ/

to utter (something) in a low and indistinct tone
poke (vb.)

push
pollack /ˈpɒlək/
15 pollack.jpg
(in Spanish abadejo) a gadoid food fish, Pollachius pollachius, that has a dark green back and a projecting lower jaw and occurs in northern seas, esp the North Atlantic Ocean
settle (a bill)

to pay
settle (in court)

We decided to settle instead of going to court. (Nos decidimos a pagar en lugar de ir a los tribunales. / llegar a un acuerdo / cancelar la deuda / pactar)
settle out

in Spanish depositar
subtle

difficult to detect or analyse, often through being delicate or highly refined
tide

"way of"; "tendency"
tough

not tender: he could not eat the tough steak
uphold

to maintain, affirm, or defend against opposition or challenge



Italian Pizza



Thai Cuisine


Japannese Sushi




Collocations


Remember that you saw what a collocation is in unit 13.
A collocation is two or more words that often go together. These combinations just sound "right" to native English speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound "wrong". Look at these examples:
Natural English...
Unnatural English...
the fast train
fast food
the quick train
quick food
a quick shower
a quick meal
a fast shower
a fast meal





7. VOCABULARY

Prefixes


Adding affixes to existing words (the base) to form new words is common in academic English.
Prefixes are added to the front of the base (like external image arrow_r.gif dislike), whereas suffixes are added to the end of the base (active external image arrow_r.gif activate). Prefixes usually do not change the class of the base word, but suffixes usually do change the class of the word.

The most common prefixes used to form new verbs in academic English are: re-, dis-, over-, un-, mis-, out-.
The most common suffixes are: -ise, -en, -ate, -(i)fy. By far the most common affix in academic English is -ise.

1. verbs + prefix external image arrow_r.gif verb
Prefix
Meaning
Examples
re-
again or back
restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance
dis-
reverses the meaning of the verb
disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect, discontinue
over-
too much
overbook, oversleep, overwork
un-
reverses the meaning of the verb
unbend, uncouple, unfasten
mis-
badly or wrongly
mislead, misinform, misidentify
out-
more or better than others
outperform, outbid
be-
make or cause
befriend, belittle
co-
together
co-exist, co-operate, co-own
de-
do the opposite of
devalue, deselect
fore-
earlier, before
foreclose, foresee
inter-
between
interact, intermix, interface
pre-
before
pre-expose, prejudge, pretest
sub-
under/below
subcontract, subdivide
trans-
across, over
transform, transcribe, transplant
under-
not enough
underfund, undersell, undervalue, underdevelop

The most common prefixes used to form new nouns in academic English are: co- and sub-. The most common suffixes are: -tion, -ity, -er, -ness, -ism, -ment, -ant, -ship, -age, -ery. By far the most common noun affix in academic English is -tion.
2. noun+prefix external image arrow_r.gif noun
Prefix
Meaning
Examples
anti-
against
anticlimax, antidote, antithesis
auto-
self
autobiography, automobile
bi-
two
bilingualism, biculturalism, bi-metalism
co-
joint
co-founder, co-owner, co-descendant
counter-
against
counter-argument, counter-example, counter-proposal
dis-
the converse of
discomfort, dislike
ex-
former
ex-chairman, ex-hunter
hyper-
extreme
hyperinflation, hypersurface
in-
the converse of
inattention, incoherence, incompatibility
in-
inside
inpatient,
inter-
between
interaction, inter-change, interference
kilo-
thousand
kilobyte
mal-
bad
malfunction, maltreatment, malnutrition
mega-
million
megabyte
mis-
wrong
misconduct, misdeed, mismanagement
mini-
small
mini-publication, mini-theory
mono-
one
monosyllable, monograph, monogamy
neo-
new
neo-colonialism, neo-impressionism
out-
separate
outbuilding,
poly-
many
polysyllable
pseudo-
false
pseudo-expert
re-
again
re-organisation, re-assessment, re-examination
semi-
half
semicircle, semi-darkness
sub-
below
subset, subdivision
super-
more than, above
superset, superimposition, superpowers
sur-
over and above
surtax
tele-
distant
telecommunications,
tri-
three
tripartism
ultra-
beyond
ultrasound
under-
below, too little
underpayment, under-development, undergraduate
vice-
deputy
vice-president

3. adjective + negative external image arrow_r.gif adjective
Prefix
Examples
un-
unfortunate, uncomfortable, unjust
im-/in-/ir-/il-
immature, impatient, improbable, inconvenient, irreplaceable, illegal
non-
non-fiction, non-political, non-neutral
dis-
disloyal, dissimilar, dishonest
e.g. base with both prefix and suffix

-able
-tion
-tive
-ment
-ar
un-
uncomfortable
unavoidable
unforgettable

unimaginative


mis-

misinformation

misjudgement
mismanagement

re-
recoverable
recyclable
reformulation
reproductive
realignment
repayment

in-
irreplaceable
incoordination
inattention
inactive
inoperative


dis-

disconnection

disappointment

semi-


semiconductive

semi-circular
Taken from: http://www.uefap.com/writing/feature/complex_lexcomp.htm



GM Food (Genetically Modified Food)





8. SPEAKING


Imagine you and some friends are in a restaurant. In groups (of three), discuss what would you do in these six situations.
1.
None of you speaks the local language, which the menu is written in.
2.
You asked for your steak to be cooked rare, but when it arrives, it's well done.
3.
The dish you chose isn't quite what you expected. You don't particularly like it.
4.
The bill comes and it's quite expensive. You only had a main meal, but everyone else had starters an dessert as well.
5.
You discover you can't pay by card and you don't have any cash on you.
6.
A service charge is not included on the bill.




Activity
  • Divide yourselves into group of equal numbers
  • Collect one recipe each for a dry heat and a moist heat cooking method
  • Prepare costings for each of these recipes
  • In your own groups prepare and cook the assigned recipe





9. VOCABULARY

Food in the News


staple
/'steipl/
a basic type of food that people eat or use very regularly
GM
foods that contain products whose genes /dʒiːnz/ have been changed (GM stands for genetically modified)
hygiene /'haɪdʒiːn/
keeping things clean in order to prevent illnesses


Speaking activity:
1.
Food production faces challenge from climate change
2.
Consumers urged not to stockpile staple foods
3.
GM food should replace organic products, claims expert
4.
Death toll rises to 24 following outbreak of food poisoning
5.
Call for ban on fast food advertising
6.
Fear of nut and other food allergies "creating hysteria"
7.
Food waste now exceeds £10 million a year
8.
Government to buy land overseas in bid to secure food supplies
9.
Poor food hygiene accusations prove to be a dirty lie
10.
Huge numbers facing food shortages





10. LISTENING


Against

· GMOS = Genetically modified organisms
· morgellons disease = enfermedad o síndrome de Morgellons (infección caracterizada por una gama de síntomas cutáneos como sensación de hormigueo, mordiscos y picaduras producidos por insectos, encontrándose fibras en la superficie o debajo de la piel, aparte de lesiones persistentes de piel como sarpullidos o llagas.
· unforeseen = imprevisto


For or against?

The 90% of soil, corn, sugar, beets, cotton, canola crops in the US are GM. (canola = aceite de colza)
The plants are genetically engineered by splicing their DNA with other species producing plant, animal, bacterial and viral gene combination that you probably wouldn't find in nature. (splice = juntar)
for:
· it produces a crop that resist pests
· it allows crops grow in dry land
· farmers can produce a lot more food in a lot more places with a lot less work
· lower food prices
against:
· its production costs much more money than what people think
· there are researches that suggest that they GMO food are harmful
· their herbicides can make people get sick (gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, Alzheimer's disease)
· some studies have found that GMO corn contains dangerous high level of toxins, they can produce tumours or cancer
· water and air are traspassing GMO into crops that don't contain it (they might be contaminating the 80% of organic crops in the Midwest in the USA)













After 12 years of searching, Monsanto found the soil bacteria that is naturally immune to Roundup herbicide. (roundup= compendio)
Their goal was to genetically engineered DNA from these bacteria into various plants.

The hope was that this biotechnololgy would end world hunger by creating higher crop yields, ironically we found studies indicate just the opposite. Reports have shown that genetically modified crops actually produce fewer yields.
In fact, in some countries where starvation rates are very high, there have been many cases of citizens burning genetically modified crops in protest.

Montsanto, the largest biotech company in the world was able to make seeds that resisted their own roundup herbicide. This allows farmers to spray as much herbicide as they want without worrying about their crops dying.

Scientists can now make seeds that produce their own pesticide. This is like you and me walking around with mosquito repellent coming out of our pores. Scientists found a bacteria in the soil that is lethal to many species of insects called Basillius Thuringiensis or BT for short, and they genetically-engineered into the crops. In the Philippines, the people living next to the genetically engineered corn field developed a recurring skin, respiratory and intestinal problems. Blood tests were done on 39 of the Philippinos and it was revealed that their immune system was affected by the BT toxin that the corn had released.


11. GRAMMAR

Reporting Verbs


15 11 Grammar Reporting verbs.jpg







12. SPEAKING






13. WRITING


  1. You will make a collection of recipes, taking into account the types of ingredients used. Things to consider are:
    • The availability of the ingredients
    • The steps used in the recipes are simple or easy to follow
    • The cost of the ingredients are affordable
  2. In this collection of recipes, make sure you group those under dry heat cooking method and those under the moist heat cooking method
  3. The estimated cost/price for each of the recipe is indicated in the collection of recipes.





· A kid cooking cookies







María Ángeles A.







Teacher's guide on lesson nutrition: http://moocrew.ie/learn/lesson-plan-1/game/

15 food pyramid.jpg




International cuisine
external image 220px-Shrimp_gumbo.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.png


Seafood gumbo, an example of Cajun cuisine




A sample of some cuisines around the world:





María Ángeles A.
.