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2. GRAMMAR: Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous


The past perfect emphasises something that happened before another past event that has already been mentioned.

A: So why did he drop out of university?
B: He had been struggling and he just decided he had had enough.



· Past Perfect Simple:



Past perfect simple
A - Had you ever tried to invent things or reinvent things before creating this instrument in particular?
B - Yes, I have made a lot of strange musical instruments in my workshop over the years. (the asnwer was made with the present perfect)

Present perfect: to refer to a general past experience, but also for events or actions that could occur again in the future. (Erik is an inventor, he invented things in the past and it's likely he'll invent more things in the future.)
13 didgeridoo.jpg
A- (Before the Nu) Had you ever invented any other kind of didgeridoo?
B - I had made a three-note didgeridoo and a slide didgeridoo.

Past Perfect Simple: It's mainly used to refer to actions or events that took place before a specific period in time.
It's used to refer to specific actions or events that occured in the past and we understand that those two other didgeridoos were made before the Nu.
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It must be clear to the listener either through context or the use of time expressions, such as before 2012, by the age of 30, ...

Before he performed the song, he had practiced it at home many times.




Stucture of the Past Perfect Simple:
I had left before he arrived.
I hadn't left before he arrived.
Had I left before he arrived?
Yes, I had.
No, I hadn't.
You had left before he arrived.
You hadn't left before he arrived.
Had you left before he arrived?
Yes, you had.
No, you hadn't.
He had left before he arrived.
He hadn't left before he arrived.
Had he left before he arrived?
Yes, he had.
No, he hadn't.
She had left before he arrived.
She hadn't left before he arrived.
Had she left before he arrived?
Yes, she had.
No, she hadn't.
It had left before he arrived.
It hadn't left before he arrived.
Had it left before he arrived?
Yes, it had.
No, it hadn't.
We had left before he arrived.
We hadn't left before he arrived.
Had we left before he arrived?
Yes, we had.
No, we hadn't.
You had left before he arrived.
You hadn't left before he arrived.
Had you left before he arrived?
Yes, you had.
No, you hadn't.
They had left before he arrived.
They hadn't left before he arrived.
Had they left before he arrived?
Yes, the had.
No, they hadn't.

13 past_perfect_simple 01.jpg


13 past perfect simple 02.GIF


13 past perfect graphics.JPG


13 past perfect continuous 01.png
13 past perfect simple 03 car.jpg





· Past Perfect Continuous



When I met Erik, he had been working on the Nu for a few years.
Past Perfect Continuous (or Progressive): it refers to an action or event that was in progress before another past point in time.
It must be clear to the speaker and the listener what those points were: we can use the simple past to refer to that later action or event.
When I saw Erik's dirty hands and happy smile, I knew he had been working in his workshop.

I was happy that Paul got a new job. He had been working for a great opportunity.



I have been working hard on this piece, so I can play it much better now.
Present Perfect Continuous (or Progressive): It can refer to past actions which have left evidence for us at the present time. (It shows an action in progress that started at some point in the past that affects in some way to the present time.)



To Sum Up:

Present Perfect Simple:
I have made a lot of strange musical instruments in my workshop over the years.
To refer to a general past experience, but also for events or actions that could occur again in the future. (Erik is an inventor, he invented things in the past and it's likely he'll invent more things in the future.)
Present perfect simple wiki.JPG
Present Perfect Continuous (or Progressive)
I have been working hard on this piece, so I can play it much better now.
It can refer to past actions which have left evidence for us at the present time. (It shows an action in progress that started at some point in the past that affects in some way to the present time.)
Present perfect continuous wiki.JPG




Past Simple:
I made a three-note didgeridoo in 2010.
To refer that something that happen at a certain (or specific) point in the past.
Past simple wiki.JPG




Past Perfect Simple:
A- (Before the Nu) Had you ever invented any other kind of didgeridoo?
B - I had made a three-note didgeridoo and a slide didgeridoo.
It's mainly used to refer to actions or events that took place before a specific period in time.
It's used to refer to specific actions or events that occured in the past and we understand that those two other didgeridoos were made before the Nu.
.
It must be clear to the listener either through context or the use of time expressions, such as before 2012, by the age of 30, ...
Past perfect simple wiki.JPG
Past Perfect Continuous (or Progressive)
When I met Erik, he had been working on the Nu for a few years.
It refers to an action or event that was in progress before another past point in time.
It must be clear to the speaker and the listener what those points were: we can use the simple past to refer to that later action or event.
Past perfect continuous wiki.JPG



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María Ángeles A.





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