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VOCABULARY:


Actions:

to be allergic to
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a hypersensitivity to a substance that causes the body to react to any contact with that substance (e.g. hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen)
to be constipated
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infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels, with hard faeces, caused by functional or organic disorders or improper diet
to be ill
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not a hundred per cent, sick, unwell, upset (in Spanish, encontrarse mal) (in Spanish, estar enfermo)
to be pregnant
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enceinte, expectant, expecting
to be sick
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(= throw up, vomit); to eject (the contents of the stomach) through the mouth as the result of involuntary muscular spasms of the stomach and oesophagus
to cough
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to expel air abruptly and explosively through the partially closed vocal chords
to faint
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black out, collapse, fade, fail, flake out (informal) keel over (informal) languish, lose consciousness, pass out, swoon
to feel dizzy
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affected with a whirling or reeling sensation; giddy
to feel funny

peculiar; odd
to feel sick
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(= nausea) the sensation that precedes vomiting
to have a cold
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an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory passages characterized by discharge of watery mucus from the nose, sneezing, etc.
to have a dizzy spell
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affected with a whirling or reeling sensation; giddy (in Spanish, un mareo)
to have a tight chest

tener el pecho oprimido
to have an attack of dizziness
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(= to feel dizzy); affected with a whirling or reeling sensation; giddy
to have side effects

any unwanted nontherapeutic effect caused by a drug
to hurt
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to cause physical pain to (someone or something)
nausea
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(= to feel sick) the sensation that precedes vomiting
to pass out
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black out, collapse, fade, fail, flake out (informal) keel over (informal) languish, lose consciousness, faint, swoon (in Spanish, perder el conocimiento, irse)
to recuperate from surgery

to recover from an operation
to sneeze
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to expel air from the nose involuntarily, esp. as the result of irritation of the nasal mucous membrane
to suffer from
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to be ill with, esp. recurrently (in Spanish, padecer de algo)
to swell up
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to grow or cause to grow in size, esp. as a result of internal pressure (in Spanish, hincharse)
to throw up
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(= be sick, vomit); to eject (the contents of the stomach) through the mouth as the result of involuntary muscular spasms of the stomach and oesophagus
undergo surgery

to experience an operation
to vomit
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(= be sick, throw up); to eject (the contents of the stomach) through the mouth as the result of involuntary muscular spasms of the stomach and oesophagus


· Diseases, Common Health Problems and Symptoms:

achy (adj.)
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affected by a continuous dull pain; aching
AIDS

acronym for acquired immune (or immuno-) deficiency syndrome: a condition, caused by a virus, in which certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) are destroyed, resulting in loss of the body's ability to protect itself against disease. AIDS is transmitted by sexual intercourse, through infected blood and blood products, and through the placenta.
allergy (n.)
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(to have an allergy); a hypersensitivity to a substance that causes the body to react to any contact with that substance (e.g. hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen)
Alzheimer's (disease)

a disorder of the brain resulting in a progressive decline in intellectual and physical abilities and eventual dementia, (Often shortened to) Alzheimers (named after A. Alzheimer (1864--1915), German physician who first identified it)
arthritis
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inflammation of a joint or joints characterized by pain and stiffness of the affected parts, caused by gout, rheumatic fever, etc.
asthma (n.)
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a respiratory disorder, often of allergic origin, characterized by difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and a sense of constriction in the chest
athlete's foot (n.)
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a fungal infection of the skin of the foot, esp. between the toes and on the soles
backache (n.)
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(a backache); an ache or pain in one's back
blister
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a small bubble-like elevation of the skin filled with serum, produced as a reaction to a burn, mechanical irritation, etc (in Spanish, ampolla)
broken leg
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fractured leg
bruise
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blacken, blemish, contuse, crush, damage, deface, discolour, injure, mar, mark, pound, pulverize
bug
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a microorganism, esp. a bacterium, that produces disease
bump
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a lump on the body caused by a blow
chest infection

an infection in the front part of the trunk from the neck to the belly
chickenpox
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a highly communicable viral disease most commonly affecting children, characterized by slight fever and the eruption of a rash
common cold
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(to have a common cold); a mild viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by sneezing, coughing, watery eyes, nasal congestion, etc.
constipation
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infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels, with hard faeces, caused by functional or organic disorders or improper diet
cough
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(to have a cough / to have a bad cough); to expel air abruptly and explosively through the partially closed vocal chords
diabetes
(n.)
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any of various disorders, esp. diabetes mellitus, characterized by excretion of an abnormally large amount of urine
diarrhea
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frequent and copious discharge of abnormally liquid faeces
dizzy spell
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(to have a dizzy spell) affected with a whirling or reeling sensation; giddy (in Spanish, un mareo)
eczema (n.)
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(Pathol) a skin inflammation with lesions that scale, crust, or ooze a serous fluid, often accompanied by intense itching or burning
earache
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pain in the middle or inner ear
fever
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(to get a fever / to have a fever); an abnormally high body temperature, accompanied by a fast pulse rate, dry skin, etc
flu
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(the flue) any of various viral infections, esp. a respiratory or intestinal infection (in Spanish, gripe)
food poisoning
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an acute illness typically characterized by gastrointestinal inflammation, vomiting, and diarrhoea, caused by food that is either naturally poisonous or contaminated by pathogenic bacteria (esp. Salmonella)
headache
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(to have a headache); pain in the head, caused by dilation of cerebral arteries, muscle contraction, insufficient oxygen in the cerebral blood, reaction to drugs, etc., (Technical name) cephalalgia
hepatitis
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inflammation of the liver, characterized by fever, jaundice, and weakness
blood pressure
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(high blood pressure / low blood pressure) the pressure exerted by the blood on the inner walls of the arteries, being relative to the elasticity and diameter of the vessels and the force of the heartbeat
infection
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invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
insomnia
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chronic inability to fall asleep or to enjoy uninterrupted sleep
itchy
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an irritation or tickling sensation of the skin causing a desire to scratch
measles
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a highly contagious viral disease common in children, characterized by fever, profuse nasal discharge of mucus, conjunctivitis, and a rash of small red spots spreading from the forehead down to the limbs, (Technical names) morbilli, rubeola (in Spanish, sarampión)
migraine (n.)
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a throbbing headache usually affecting only one side of the head and commonly accompanied by nausea and visual disturbances
mumps (n.)
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functioning as sing or pl an acute contagious viral disease of the parotid salivary glands, characterized by swelling of the affected parts, fever, and pain beneath the ear: usually affects children, (Also called) epidemic parotitis (in Spanish, paperas)
nose bleed
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(to have a nose bleed); bleeding from the nose, as the result of injury, etc.,
outward signs

signos externos
Parkinson's (disease)

a progressive chronic disorder of the central nervous system characterized by impaired muscular coordination and tremor, (Often shortened to) Parkinsons (Also called) Parkinsonism, Parkinsons syndrome, paralysis agitans, shaking palsy (named after James Parkinson (1755--1824), British surgeon, who first described it)
pin
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(Surgery) a metal rod, esp. of stainless steel, for holding together adjacent ends of fractured bones during healing
rash
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any skin eruption
rough
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(to feel rough); (informal) ill, not a hundred per cent, sick, unwell, upset (in Spanish, encontrarse mal)
runny nose
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(to have a runny nose); (of the nose or nasal passages) exuding mucus
scratch
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to mark or cut (the surface of something) with a rough or sharp instrument
slipped disc
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(Pathol) a herniated intervertebral disc, often resulting in pain because of pressure on the spinal nerves (in Spanish, hernia discal)
sore throat
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(to have a sore throat); a painful sensitive throat
STD

sexually transmitted disease
steroid cream
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steroid = any of a large group of fat-soluble organic compounds containing a characteristic chemical ring system. The majority, including the sterols, bile acids, many hormones, and the D vitamins, have important physiological action
stiff
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moving with pain or difficulty
stitch
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a link made by drawing a thread through material by means of a needle
stomachache
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(to have a stomachache); pain in the stomach or abdominal region, as from acute indigestion, (Technical name) gastralgia (Also called) stomach upset, upset stomach
stress
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mental, emotional, or physical strain or tension
stroke
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(a stroke); apoplexy; rupture of a blood vessel in the brain resulting in loss of consciousness, often followed by paralysis, or embolism or thrombosis affecting a cerebral vessel (in Spanish, derrame)
sunburn
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inflammation of the skin caused by overexposure to the sun, (Technical name) erythema solare
swollen
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(to have a swollen face / swollen finger); bloated, enlarged, inflamed, puffed up, puffy
tuberculosis

a communicable disease caused by infection with the tubercle bacillus, most frequently affecting the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis), (Also called) consumption, phthisis (Abbrev.) TB
toothache (n.)
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(a toothache); a pain in or about a tooth
twisted ankle
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(a twisted ankle / to twiste one's ankle); to force or be forced out of the natural form or position
upset stomach
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(to have an upset stomach); pain in the stomach or abdominal region, as from acute indigestion, (Technical name) gastralgia (Also called) stomach upset


· Other Vocabulary:

antibiotics
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any of various chemical substances, such as penicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline, produced by various microorganisms, esp. fungi, or made synthetically and capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, esp. bacteria
aspirin (n.)
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(some aspirine)
a white crystalline compound widely used in the form of tablets to relieve pain, fever, and colds and to reduce inflammation. Formula: CH3COOC6H4COOH, (Chemical name) acetylsalicylic
bandage
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(elastic bandage)
a piece of material used to dress a wound, bind a broken limb, etc
cast (n.)
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(a cast)
a rigid encircling casing, often made of plaster of Paris, for immobilizing broken bones while they heal
cough medicine



cream



crutch
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(crutches)
a long staff of wood or metal having a rest for the armpit, for supporting the weight of the body
fast (vb.)

(ayunar)

herbal remedy
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herbs that cure a disease or controls its symptoms
inhaler
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(an inhaler)
a device for breathing in therapeutic vapours, esp. one for relieving nasal congestion
injection (n.)
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(an injection)
fluid injected into the body, esp. for medicinal purposes
oxygen mask
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a device, worn over the nose and mouth, to which oxygen is supplied from a cylinder or other source: used to aid breathing
painkillers



pills

(cápsulas)

plaster
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(in plaster)
a white powder that sets to a hard solid when mixed with water, used for making sculptures and casts, as an additive for lime plasters, and for making casts for setting broken limbs. It is usually the hemihydrate of calcium sulphate, 2CaSO4.H2O (also known as plaster of Paris)
pregnancy test

(a pregnancy test)

sticking plaster
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a thin cloth with an adhesive substance on one side, used for covering slight or superficial wounds /

(Brit., Austral., and N.Z.) an adhesive strip of material, usually medicated, for dressing a cut, wound, etc.
surgical collar

(a surgical collar)

tablets

(pastillas)

thermometer

(a thermometer)

wheelchair
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(Med) a special chair mounted on large wheels, for use by invalids or others for whom walking is impossible or temporarily inadvisable
X-ray

(an X-ray)




Diseases:

DISEASE
SOURCE OF DISEASE

cancer

any type of malignant growth or tumour, caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division: it may spread through the lymphatic system or blood stream to other parts of the body
cholera
vibrio cholerae
an acute intestinal infection characterized by severe diarrhoea, cramp, etc.: caused by ingestion of water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio comma, (Also called) Asiatic cholera, epidemic cholera, Indian cholera
diphtheria
corynebacterium diphtheriae
an acute contagious disease caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae, producing fever, severe prostration, and difficulty in breathing and swallowing as the result of swelling of the throat and formation of a false membrane
epidemic typhus
rickettsia prowazekii
any one of a group of acute infectious rickettsial diseases characterized by high fever, skin rash, and severe headache, (Also called) typhus fever
gonorrhea
neisseria gonorrhoeae
an infectious venereal disease caused by a gonococcus, characterized by a burning sensation when urinating and a mucopurulent discharge from the urethra or vagina
hepatitis A / B / C / D / E
hepatitis A / B / C / D / E virus
inflammation of the liver, characterized by fever, jaundice, and weakness
human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
human papillomavirus (HPV)
any one of a class of viruses that cause tumours, including warts, in humans. Certain strains infect the cervix and have been implicated as a cause of cervical cancer
Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis (Mono)
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
an acute infectious disease, caused by Epstein-Barr virus, characterized by fever, sore throat, swollen and painful lymph nodes, and abnormal lymphocytes in the blood,
Kawasaki's disease
unknown
a disease of children that causes a rash, fever, and swelling of the lymph nodes and often damages the heart muscle
malaria
plasmodium genus
an infectious disease characterized by recurring attacks of chills and fever, caused by the bite of an anopheles mosquito infected with any of four protozoans of the genus Plasmodium (P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, or P. ovale)
meningitis
multiple
an acute infectious form of meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, characterized by high fever, skin rash, delirium, stupor, and sometimes coma
pneumonia
multiple
inflammation of one or both lungs, in which the air sacs (alveoli) become filled with liquid, which renders them useless for breathing. It is usually caused by bacterial (esp. pneumococcal) or viral infection
salmonellosis
salmonella genus
any Gram-negative rod-shaped aerobic bacterium of the genus Salmonella, including S. typhosa, which causes typhoid fever, and many species (notably S. enteritidis) that cause food poisoning (salmonellosis): family Enterobacteriaceae
syphilis
treponema pallidum
a venereal disease caused by infection with the microorganism Treponema pallidum: characterized by an ulcerating chancre, usually on the genitals and progressing through the lymphatic system to nearly all tissues of the body, producing serious clinical manifestations
tetanus
clostridium tetani
lockjaw an acute infectious disease in which sustained muscular spasm, contraction, and convulsion are caused by the release of exotoxins from the bacterium, Clostridium tetani: infection usually occurs through a contaminated wound





KINDS OF DOCTORS:


cardiologist


consultant
a specialist who gives expert advice or information
especialista
GP = General Practitioner


dentist


dermatologist


gynecologist / obstetrician


matron / midwife


midwife / matron


obstetrician / gynecologist


ophthalmologist


pediatrician


physiotherapist


psychiatrist


surgeon





María Ángeles A.
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